Cyber crime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the objective. Cyber crimes can be defined as: “Crimes committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally damage the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, directly or indirectly to the victim, using modern networks of telecommunications, such as the Internet (networks that include chat rooms, emails, bulletin boards and groups) and mobile phones, issues related to this type of crime have become high profile, particularly those related to piracy, infringement of rights of author, massive unjustified surveillance, sexual extortion, child pornography, and child grooming.
There are also privacy issues when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, legally or otherwise. Cybernetic crimes from the perspective of gender and defined as “cyber crime against women” as “Crimes against women with a motive to intentionally damage the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunications networks such as internet and mobile phones.” At the international level, governmental and non-state actors are involved in cyber crimes, including espionage, financial theft and other cross-border crimes. Cybercrimes that cross international borders and involve the actions of at least one nation-state are sometimes referred to as cyber warfare.