Cyber ​​crime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the objective. Cyber ​​crimes can be defined as: “Crimes committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally damage the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, directly or indirectly to the victim, using modern networks of telecommunications, such as the Internet (networks that include chat rooms, emails, bulletin boards and groups) and mobile phones, issues related to this type of crime have become high profile, particularly those related to piracy, infringement of rights of author, massive unjustified surveillance, sexual extortion, child pornography, and child grooming.

There are also privacy issues when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, legally or otherwise. Cybernetic crimes from the perspective of gender and defined as “cyber crime against women” as “Crimes against women with a motive to intentionally damage the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunications networks such as internet and mobile phones.” At the international level, governmental and non-state actors are involved in cyber crimes, including espionage, financial theft and other cross-border crimes. Cybercrimes that cross international borders and involve the actions of at least one nation-state are sometimes referred to as cyber warfare.

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Network security

Network security consists of the policies and practices adopted to prevent and monitor the unauthorized access, misuse, modification or denial of a network of computers and resources accessible to the network. Having un-authorized access to a network my break the organisation law, and user my suffer from Legal Custody.

The security of the network implies the Law full authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the administrator of the network. Users choose or are assigned an identification and password or other authentication information that allows them to access information and programs within their authority.

Network security covers a variety of computer networks, both public and private, that are used in day-to-day work; Realization of transactions and communications between companies, government agencies and individuals. Networks can be private, such as within a company, and others that can be open to public access. The security of the network is involved in organizations, companies and other types of institutions. It does what its title explains: it secures the network, besides protecting and supervising the operations that are carried out. The most common and easiest way to protect a network resource is by assigning it a unique name and a corresponding password.

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Mobile security

Mobile security, or more specifically the security of mobile devices, has become increasingly important in mobile computing. Of particular concern is the security of personal and business information now stored in smartphones.

More and more users and companies use smartphones to communicate, but also to plan and organize the work of their users and also private life. Within companies, these technologies are causing profound changes in the organization of information systems and, therefore, have become the source of new risks. In fact, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of confidential information to which access must be controlled to protect the privacy of the user and the intellectual property of the company.

All smartphones, like computers, are preferred targets of attacks. These attacks exploit the weaknesses inherent in smartphones that can come from the communication mode, such as the Short Message Service (SMS, also called text message), the Multimedia Message Service (MMS), WiFi, Bluetooth and GSM, the de facto global standard for mobile communications. There are also exploits that attack software vulnerabilities in the browser or the operating system. And some malicious programs are based on the weak knowledge of an average user.

Security countermeasures are being developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different software layers to dissemination of information to end users. There are good practices that must be observed at all levels, from design to use, to the development of operating systems, software layers and downloadable applications.

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Computer security

Computer security, cybersecurity or security of information technology (computer security) is the protection of computer systems against the theft or damage of your electronic hardware, software or data, as well as the interruption or poor management of the services they provide. .

The field is increasingly important due to the greater dependence on computer systems, Internet and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and due to the growth of “smart” devices, including smartphones, televisions and the various devices that make up the “internet of things”. Due to its complexity, both in terms of policy and technology, cybersecurity is also one of the main challenges in the contemporary world.

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Cyberwarfare is a wide term that describes the use of technological force within cyberspace. Cyber ​​warfare “does not imply scale, prolongation or violence that are typically associated with the term” war. “There is a significant debate among experts regarding the definition of cyber warfare, and even if such a thing exists. “is a misnomer, to date you can not describe offensive cyber actions as” war. “Offensive cyber actions, such as those in Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, Iran in 2010, North Korea have occurred in the context of international relations, and have only condemned and denied the parties.
Cyber ​​warfare may not meet the typical definition of the term war, however, many states, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, India, China, Israel, Iran, North Korea and Vietnam have active cyber operations for offensive operations and defensive As states explore the use of cyber operations and combine capabilities, the likelihood of physical confrontation and violence as a result of, or part of, a cybernetic operation increases. However, it is unlikely to comply with the scale and protracted nature of the war, so the ambiguity remains.

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Automotive security

Automotive security refers to the branch of computer security focused on the cyber risks related to the automotive context. The increasingly high number of ECUs in vehicles and, alongside, the implementation of multiple different means of communication from and towards the vehicle in a remote and wireless manner led to the necessity of a branch of cybersecurity dedicated to the threats associated with vehicles. Not to be confused with automotive safety.

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Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization, sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer’s consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer’s knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer’s consent, through cookies

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Ransomware is a type of cryptovirology malware that threatens to publish victim data or block access to it unless a ransom is paid. While a simple ransomware can block the system in a way that is not difficult to reverse for a knowledgeable person, the most advanced malware uses a technique called crypto-viral extortion, in which it encrypts the victim’s files, making them inaccessible, and demands a rescue payment to decrypt them In a correctly implemented cryptoviral extortion attack, recovering files without the decryption key is an intractable problem, and hard-to-track digital currencies, such as Ukash and cryptocurrency, are used for rescues, that hinders the tracking and prosecution of the perpetrators.
Ransomware is a subset of malware in which data from the victim’s computer is blocked, usually by encryption, and payment is required before the rescue data is decrypted and access to the victim is returned. The reason for ransomware attacks is almost always monetary and, unlike other types of attacks, the victim is usually notified that a vulnerability has occurred and instructions are given on how to recover from the attack. Payment is often required in a virtual currency, such as Bitcoin, so the identity of the cybercriminal is not known.

Ransomware malware can spread through malicious email attachments, infected software applications, infected external storage devices and compromised websites. The attacks have also used the remote desktop protocol and other approaches that are not based on any form of user interaction.

How ransomware attacks work
The deep web ransomware kits have allowed cyber criminals to buy and use a software tool to create ransomware with specific capabilities. Then they can generate this malware for their own distribution and with the ransoms paid to their bitcoin accounts. As with much of the rest of the IT world, it is now possible for those with little or no technical experience to order a cheap ransomware as a service (RaaS) and launch attacks with minimal effort. In a RaaS scenario, the provider charges the ransom payments and takes a percentage before distributing the revenue to the user of the service.

Types of ransomware
Attackers can use one of several different approaches to extort the digital currency of their victims. For example:

The ransomware known as scareware will try to present itself as security software or technical support. Victims can receive pop-up notifications that indicate that malware has been discovered in their system (that, a non-proprietary security software would not have access to this information). Not answering this will not do anything, except that more pop-ups are generated.
Screen boxes, or lockers, are a type of ransomware designed to completely block a user from your computer. When turning on the computer, a victim can see what appears to be an official government seal, leading the victim to believe that they are the subject of an official investigation. After being informed that unlicensed software or illegal web content has been found on your computer, the victim receives instructions on how to pay an electronic fine. However, official governmental organizations would not do this; instead, they would go through the appropriate channels and legal procedures.
When encrypting the ransomware or data hijacking attacks, the attacker will access and encrypt the victim’s data and request a payment to unlock the files. Once this happens, there is no guarantee that the victim will get access to your data, even if they negotiate for it.
Like ransomware encryption, the attacker can also encrypt files on infected devices and earn money selling a product that promises to help the victim unlock files and prevent future malware attacks.
In Doxware, an attacker can also threaten to publish their data online if the victim does not pay a ransom.
Mobile ransomware is a ransomware that affects mobile devices. An attacker can use mobile ransomware to steal data from a phone or block it and request a ransom to return the data or unlock the device.
The victim may also receive a pop-up message or a ransom note by email warning that if the sum requested is not paid on a specific date, the private key required to unlock the device or decrypt the files will be destroyed.
Ransomware attacks are usually carried out using a Trojan that is disguised as a legitimate file that the user can download or

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RAT (remote access Trojan)

RAT (remote access trojan)
A remote access Trojan (RAT) is a malware program that includes a backdoor for administrative control of the target computer. RATs are usually downloaded invisibly with a program requested by the user, such as a game, or sent as an email attachment. Once the host system is compromised, the intruder can use it to distribute RATs to other vulnerable computers and establish a botnet.

Because a RAT enables administrative control, it makes it possible for the intruder to do almost anything on the selected computer, including:

Monitoring user behavior through keyloggers or other spyware.
Access to confidential information, such as credit cards and social security numbers.
Activate the webcam of a system and record video.
Taking screenshots.
Distributing viruses and other malware.

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Trojan horse (computing)

A Trojan horse can also be called a Trojan horse virus, but that is technically incorrect. Unlike a computer virus, a Trojan can not replicate itself, nor can it spread without the help of an end user. In computing, a Trojan, or Trojan, is any malware that deceives users about their true intention. The term is derived from the ancient Greek history of the deceptive wooden horse that led to the fall of the city of Troy.
Trojans are usually propagated through some kind of social engineering, for example, when a user is tricked into running an email attachment disguised to look suspicious (for example, a routine form that must be completed), or clicking on a fake ad on social networks or anywhere else. Although its payload can be anything, many modern forms act as a backdoor, contacting a controller who may have unauthorized access to the affected computer. Trojans can allow an attacker to access personal information of users, such as banking information, passwords or personal identity. You can also delete a user’s files or infect other devices connected to the network. Ransomware attacks are often carried out using a Trojan horse.
This is the reason why attackers must use social engineering tactics to trick the end user into running the Trojan horse. Typically, malware programming is hidden in an innocent-looking email attachment or free download. When the user clicks on the attachment of the email or downloads the free program, the malware that is hidden inside is transferred to the user’s computer device. Once inside, the malicious code can execute any task that the attacker designed to carry out.

Because the user often does not know that a Trojan horse has been installed, the security of the computer device depends on the anti-malware software that can recognize the malicious code, isolate it and delete it. To avoid being infected by Trojan malware, users must keep their antivirus software updated and never click on links from unreliable sources or download files from unknown senders.

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